How to Make the Perfect Flat White at Home

Author: Veruska Anconitano, Multilingual SEO & Globalization Consultant and unsweetened espresso obsessedAuthor information
About the author
Veruska Anconitano
Veruska works as a Multilingual SEO and Globalization Consultant, fueled by her boundless love for unsweetened espresso, which she drinks too much and at every possible moment. Her quest for the best Roman-styled latte macchiato, crafted with warm milk and a modest whisper of coffee, is a mission. Despite experimenting with a myriad of coffee machines, her Italian roots resoundingly resonate with the humble moka pot. With a curious palate and her work in food travel, she continually ventures into the exploration of new beans and enticing combinations.
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Are you looking for the best recipe to make the perfect flat white at home? Look no further! After years of experiments, I’ve finally decoded the secret to make a flat white at home, and I’m here to share them with you!

The flat white, a coffee drink cherished for its delicate balance and velvety texture, has steadily risen from its obscure beginnings into the limelight of specialty coffee menus worldwide. Emerging from the rich coffee cultures of Australia and New Zealand in the 1980s, the flat white has become a hallmark of expertly crafted espresso beverages, celebrated for its harmonious blend of strong espresso and smooth, microfoamed milk.

Characteristically, a flat white is distinguished by a couple of key features: it typically consists of a double shot of espresso and a higher proportion of coffee to milk compared to a latte or cappuccino, though with a similar overall size. This ratio results in a more intense coffee flavor, making it a favorite among those who prefer a robust espresso experience softened by the creaminess of steamed milk. The milk in a flat white is steamed not to create the thick froth of a cappuccino but to produce a fine, velvety microfoam that blends seamlessly with the espresso, highlighting its rich, complex flavors without overpowering them.

For coffee enthusiasts, mastering the flat white at home is more than just learning a new recipe; it’s an entryway into a deeper understanding and appreciation of the art and science behind exceptional coffee making. It demands precision – from bean selection and espresso extraction to milk steaming and pouring techniques. Pursuing the perfect flat white at home is challenging, encapsulating the essence of quality, skill, and the sheer joy of savoring a beautifully crafted coffee drink.

Whether you’re a seasoned coffee aficionado or a curious newcomer, creating the perfect flat white can transform your coffee routine into an artisanal adventure right in your own kitchen. In this guide, you’ll learn how to make the perfect flat white at home with a method I’ve been using for years now; you’ll also learn secrets to make sure your flat white is better than the one you can order at a coffee shop.

What Is A Flat White?

A flat white is a popular coffee drink that has won the hearts of coffee aficionados worldwide with its rich, velvety harmony of espresso and milk.

At its core, a flat white is composed of a double shot of espresso and a luxuriously smooth layer of steamed milk, distinguished by its fine, silky microform.

Unlike a latte, which typically has more milk and a light layer of foam, or a cappuccino, known for its dry froth, the flat white boasts a higher coffee-to-milk ratio, offering a more intense espresso flavor while maintaining a creamy consistency.

The key to its allure lies in the delicate balance between the robustness of espresso and the subtlety of milk, all served in a relatively small 150-160 ml cup.

This drink is not just about the taste but the texture, with the microfoam blending seamlessly into the espresso, creating a harmonious and indulgent coffee experience.

Flat White

Flat White At Home Step-by-Step

Without further ado, this is the step-by-step method to make the perfect flat white at home. I’ll discuss all the details later in this guide, but for now, let’s concentrate on the specifics.


  • Espresso coffee beans
  • Cold milk (full-fat milk recommended for better texture)


Grind the Coffe

  • Grind enough coffee beans to make a double espresso shot (typically about 18 to 21 grams).

Make the Espresso

  • Tamp the ground coffee firmly in the portafilter.
  • Extract a double shot of espresso into a wide-brimmed, flat white cup (about 150–160 ml capacity).
You can follow our guide on how to make the perfect espresso.

Steam the Milk

Use this method if you use a coffee machine:

  • Fill your milk jug about half full with cold milk.
  • Use the steam wand of your espresso machine to steam the milk to between 55–68°C, creating a smooth, velvety microfoam. Avoid steaming beyond 68°C to prevent altering the milk’s flavor.
  • Hold the wand below the milk’s surface to create a swirling vortex.

If you don’t have an espresso machine, steam the milk using this method:

  • Pour the milk into a small saucepan. Heat it over medium heat, but don’t let it boil. Aim for a temperature of around 55–68°C, using a kitchen thermometer to check.
  • Once the milk is heated, use a whisk to froth it. Whisk vigorously by hand, creating a swirling motion to incorporate air into the milk until it’s frothy and has increased in volume.

Combine Milk and Espresso

  • Before pouring, gently tap the milk jug against the counter to remove any large bubbles and swirl to keep the milk texture consistent.
  • Pour the steamed milk over the espresso. Start from a higher position and then lower the jug closer to the coffee as you pour more milk. This should ideally result in a thin layer of microfoam resting atop the coffee.

Serve Immediately

  • Enjoy your homemade flat white while it’s fresh and warm.
Flat White How to

The Differences Between Flat White, Latte, And Cappuccino

When discerning the nuances between a flat white, a latte, and a cappuccino, the key factors lie in their frothiness and the texture of the steamed milk.

A flat white, known for its velvety and refined texture, features the least froth among the three, showcasing a mere ¼ inch of microfoam atop. This is achieved by stretching the steamed milk by about 20-25%, ensuring the foam blends subtly with the underlying espresso.

In contrast, a latte presents a slightly frothier character, with approximately ⅜ inch of microfoam. This demands a milk stretch of about 25-35%, creating a creamier texture that gently complements the espresso while maintaining a smooth, silky consistency.

The cappuccino, distinctive for its richer froth yet devoid of the airiness of foam, boasts about ½ inch of microfoam. To create this classic texture, the milk is stretched significantly, between 30-50%, resulting in a harmonious balance of froth and flavor that crowns the bold espresso beneath.

Flat White vs Latte vs Cappuccino

Flat White

Least frothy of the three.

Approximately ¼ inch of microfoam on top.

Steamed milk is stretched 20-25%.


Medium frothiness.

About ⅜ inch of microfoam at the top.

Steamed milk is stretched 25-35%.


Frothy but not foamy.

Roughly ½ inch of microfoam at the top.

Steamed milk is stretched 30-50%.

Flat White vs Latte vs Cappuccino

The Essentials Of Flat White

A flat white, distinct from other espresso-based beverages, is renowned for its finely balanced coffee-to-milk ratio and a texture focused on a silky layer of microfoam. What primarily sets a flat white apart is the combination of a double shot of espresso with a thin layer of velvety microfoam, approximately ¼ inch thick. This special blend allows for a more pronounced coffee flavor than the milkier latte or the foam-dominant cappuccino. In a flat white, the microfoam is smoothly blended, stretched only about 20-25%, to ensure it subtly enhances, rather than overwhelms, the espresso’s robust taste.

Beans Selection

Selecting the right type of coffee beans is a critical step in crafting the perfect flat white, as the choice of beans can significantly alter the drink’s flavor profile. Coffee beans come from various global origins, each imparting unique taste characteristics ranging from the bright, fruity, and acidic notes in African beans to the deep, nutty, and chocolatey flavors typical of South American varieties. Asian beans, particularly from Indonesia, often contribute earthy, spicy elements. These diverse flavor notes play a pivotal role in the overall sensory experience of the flat white.

Regarding the roast level, a medium to dark roast is typically recommended for flat whites. These roasts offer a fuller body and a more pronounced flavor intensity, making them better suited to stand up against and complement the creamy smoothness of the steamed milk. A medium roast can highlight a bean’s inherent qualities and subtle flavor variances, bringing out balanced notes of sweetness and acidity. On the other hand, a dark roast tends to reduce acidity, emphasizing richer, bolder flavors with hints of caramelization, ideal for those who enjoy a heartier, more robust coffee.

Do you want to know more about roasting coffee? Head over to our comprehensive guide.

Furthermore, the roast level affects the coffee’s oil and sugar content, influencing not just the taste but also the texture and mouthfeel. The ideal roast for a flat white should strike a balance – robust enough to maintain its distinctive flavors when mixed with milk, yet not so intense as to overpower the delicate, silky texture of the microform.

This harmony between the espresso and the milk is the essence of a great flat white, turning a simple coffee drink into an exquisite, full-bodied experience. Thus, taking the time to select the right beans and roast them can elevate the flat white from merely good to truly exceptional.

smell coffee


The grinding process in preparing a flat white plays a fundamental role, one that demands as much attention as the selection of beans and roast.

The ideal grind for espresso, and consequently for an excellent flat white, should resemble the texture of table salt — distinctly fine, yet not powdery. This specific grind size is pivotal for optimal espresso extraction, allowing the right amount of water resistance to flow through the coffee grounds. The pressure from the espresso machine forces water through these fine grounds, extracting a concentrated array of flavors and aromas. If the grind is too coarse, the water passes through too quickly, leading to under-extraction, where the delightful nuances of the coffee are lost, leaving a watery and overly acidic shot. Conversely, an overly fine grind can impede the water flow excessively, resulting in over-extraction and a bitter, burnt taste.

Consistency in grind size is a crucial factor influencing the extraction process. Uniform grounds ensure even water distribution and contact time, which is crucial for achieving a balanced extraction. This level of precision in grinding ensures each shot of espresso maintains a delicate equilibrium between bitterness and acidity — a balance crucial in a flat white, where the espresso’s flavor profile should shine through the milk without overwhelming it.

However, achieving this consistency often requires a bit of fine-tuning. Different espresso machines and bean varieties might demand slight adjustments to the grind setting. Factors like humidity, temperature, and even the age of the coffee can influence the grind size and extraction. The goal, through trial and error, remains to extract a shot that embodies a full spectrum of flavors – rich but not overpowering, bold yet smooth – creating a well-rounded, complex base that complements the creamy texture of steamed milk in the flat white. Perfecting this aspect of the process is as much an art as it is a science, requiring patience and precision but rewarding the brewer with a truly exceptional coffee experience.

Equipment Needed To Make Flat White At Home

Crafting the perfect flat white at home isn’t just about the technique and ingredients; the equipment you use plays a crucial role in determining the quality of your final brew. From the precision of your espresso extraction to the texture of your milk froth, each element of the process is influenced by the tools at your disposal. These are the essential pieces of equipment needed to create a cafe-quality flat white in your own kitchen.

Espresso Machine

Brewing Expresso At Home

A high-quality espresso machine is paramount for making an authentic flat white. Such a machine ensures consistent pressure and temperature, which is critical for extracting a rich, flavorful espresso shot. Maintaining a stable extraction environment brings out the best in your coffee beans, capturing their full flavor profile.

Look for coffee machines with reliable temperature control (PID controllers are ideal), good pressure for extraction (around 9 bars is standard), and a durable build. Advanced machines may offer additional features like pre-infusion, further enhancing the flavor extraction from the coffee grounds.


The grinder is just as crucial as the espresso machine. A burr grinder is recommended over a blade grinder for its ability to grind coffee beans to a uniform size. Consistent grind size is key in achieving balanced extraction; irregular grinds can lead to over- and under-extraction within the same shot.

An adjustable burr grinder allows you to fine-tune the grind size based on the type of bean and the desired espresso shot quality. A quality grinder ensures that each coffee particle is uniformly exposed to the brewing process, producing a more consistent and flavorful espresso.

Check the different types of grinders on Amazon to find yours and start grinding your coffee at home.

Milk Frother/Steam Wand

The texture of the milk in a flat white sets it apart from other espresso drinks. A milk frother or steam wand is essential in creating the smooth, velvety microfoam that characterizes a flat white. The steam wand on an espresso machine introduces steam into the milk, heating and texturing it to achieve that glossy, fine microform. The same can be obtained using a specific milk frother that you can also use for other coffee beverages.

The microfoam is not just about the tool but also the technique. The key is to introduce just the right amount of air (stretching) and then integrate it into the milk (texturing). This process requires practice and a bit of skill to perfect. An ideal steam wand should be powerful enough to create a whirlpool effect in the milk pitcher, ensuring even heat distribution and foam creation.

The Espresso Shot

Mastering the espresso shot is a critical step in creating a delicious flat white. The process is nuanced and requires precision, but understanding the basics of dosage, tamping, extraction, and troubleshooting can lead to consistently great results.

Dosage & Tamping

The amount of coffee used is key. For a standard double espresso shot, the base for a flat white, you typically need about 18 to 20 grams of ground coffee. However, this can vary slightly depending on your espresso machine and coffee bean type.

Tamping compresses the coffee grounds evenly, promoting uniform water distribution during extraction. The tamp should be firm and level, aiming for a pressure of about 30 pounds. An uneven tamp can lead to channeling, where water passes through the puck unevenly, resulting in an under-extracted shot.


The ideal extraction time for an espresso shot is typically between 25 to 30 seconds from the moment you start the machine. Within this window, you should aim to extract about 30 to 40 milliliters of espresso.

A well-extracted espresso will have a rich, caramel-colored crema on top. The flavor should be balanced, not too bitter nor too acidic. If your timings are within the ideal range, but the taste isn’t right, it might be a matter of adjusting the grind size, dose, or tamping pressure.

For more in-depth information on how to brew the perfect espresso at home, this guide can be a good starting point.

Perfecting the Milk For Your Flat White

A flat white’s charm lies not just in the quality of the espresso but equally in the texture and temperature of the milk. The right milk and steaming technique are essential to achieve the creamy, smooth microfoam that defines this drink. Mastering milk for a flat white takes practice, especially when learning to create the perfect microfoam and understanding how different milks behave under steam. However, the effort is worth it when you achieve that silky, glossy finish that melds seamlessly with the espresso, completing the luxurious experience of a homemade flat white.


Type of Milk

Traditionally, full-fat milk is used for its rich flavor and creamy texture, which lends itself well to creating smooth microfoam. The fats and proteins in full-fat milk stabilize the air bubbles during frothing, making it easier to achieve consistent results.

Skimmed milk can also be used and often produces more foam with larger air bubbles due to its lower fat content. Plant-based milks like soy, almond, or oat milk are popular alternatives; however, their foaming properties vary due to different protein and fat compositions. Some brands offer “barista” versions, specially formulated for better frothing.

Steaming Technique

  1. Filling the Pitcher: Fill your milk pitcher to just below the spout. This allows enough room for the milk to expand without overflowing.
  2. Positioning the Steam Wand: Submerge the tip of the steam wand just below the milk’s surface, off-center in the pitcher. Turn on the steam to full power.
  3. Stretching the Milk: Initially, keep the steam wand near the surface to introduce air and “stretch” the milk, expanding its volume. You’ll hear a distinct hissing sound. Do this until the milk reaches about 100°F (38°C).
  4. Texturing the Milk: After the initial stretch, submerge the wand deeper into the milk to create a whirlpool effect. This integrates the air into the milk, breaking down large bubbles and creating fine, velvety microfoam.
  5. Ending the Steam: Stop steaming when the milk reaches a temperature between 140-150°F (60-65°C). Overheating the milk can result in a scalded flavor and impair the structure of the microfoam.


The ideal temperature range for steamed milk in a flat white is between 140-150°F (60-65°C). This range is warm enough to enhance the sweetness of the milk, yet cool enough to avoid burning or altering its flavor profile.

Overheated milk not only tastes burnt but also loses its ability to form fine, consistent microfoam. It can also impact the overall temperature of the espresso, disrupting the balance of flavors in your flat white.

Assembling Your Flat White

Once you’ve brewed your rich, aromatic espresso and steamed your milk perfectly, the next step is to marry these two components into the iconic flat white. Achieving the right balance and technique in pouring is crucial for that signature smooth, silky finish.

The Ratio of Espresso to Milk

The standard ratio for a flat white is typically one part espresso to two parts steamed milk. This typically translates to a double shot of espresso (about 60 ml or 2 ounces) topped with about 120 ml (4 ounces) of steamed milk. However, these proportions can be slightly adjusted according to personal taste.

The goal is to achieve a harmonious balance where the creamy milk complements, rather than overwhelms, the espresso. The milk should add body and sweetness while allowing the espresso’s complex flavors to shine through.

Pouring the Milk

  1. Start with the Right Angle and Height: Begin by tilting the cup slightly and pouring the milk from a moderate height. This helps the milk to penetrate the espresso, creating a uniform color and temperature.
  2. Creating the Base: Pour steadily and smoothly. Start with a thin stream of milk to mix with the espresso, gradually increasing the flow as the cup fills. This will create a good base for any latte art while ensuring a well-mixed drink.
  3. Finalizing the Pour: As the cup becomes about three-quarters full, bring the pitcher closer to the surface of the coffee, slowing down the pour. This shift allows the thicker, frothier milk to flow out and sit on top, creating that sought-after creamy layer.

The assembly of a flat white is not just about technique but also timing. The espresso and milk should be combined immediately after steaming to preserve the texture and temperature of the milk. When done right, a flat white showcases a harmonious blend of strong espresso mellowed with smoothly integrated, creamy milk — a true delight for coffee aficionados.

Flat White Coffee At Home

Expert Tips for Home Baristas

Creating the perfect flat white is an art that marbles together skill, precision, and a bit of personal flair. Here are some tips to help you refine your technique and craft a flat white that not only tastes great but also brings satisfaction to its creation.

Practice Makes Perfect

Like any skill, mastering the flat white requires regular practice. Don’t be discouraged by initial failures; each attempt is a step towards perfection.

Pay attention to the details each time you brew. Notice how slight changes in milk temperature or espresso extraction alter the drink’s taste and texture.

If possible, share your creations with friends or family members who can provide constructive feedback. Sometimes, a fresh palate can offer valuable insights into what’s working well and what isn’t.

Taste Adjustments

Depending on your taste, you may prefer a stronger or milder espresso flavor. Experiment with different coffee beans, roasts, and extraction times to find your ideal profile.

Play around with different types of milk to see how each impacts the taste and texture of your flat white. Full-fat milk offers richness, while alternatives like almond or oat milk can introduce new flavors and consistencies.

Some coffee drinkers prefer their beverages hotter or cooler than the traditional temperatures. Feel free to adjust the milk-steaming temperature to suit your preference, considering the effects on overall flavor and texture.

Maintaining Your Equipment

Ensure your espresso machine and grinder are clean. Residual coffee oils and milk can spoil the taste of your coffee and affect the functionality of your equipment.

Depending on the hardness of your water, limescale buildup can be a problem. Regular descaling ensures your machine operates efficiently and maintains the integrity of your coffee’s flavor.

For grinders, keeping the blades or burrs clean and sharp is crucial for consistent grind size. Dull or dirty grinders can lead to uneven extraction, affecting the taste of your espresso.

Remember, the journey to the perfect flat white is as rewarding as the destination. Each cup offers a chance to learn and improve, bringing you closer to crafting that ideal cup that resonates with your personal coffee indulgence.

How to Steam Milk Without an Espresso Machine

Creating the perfect flat white at home without an espresso machine’s steam wand can be challenging, but there are alternative methods to steam and froth milk to achieve a similar texture. Here’s how you can do it.

Using a Stovetop and Whisk:

  1. Heat the Milk: Pour the milk into a small saucepan. Heat it over medium heat, but don’t let it boil. Aim for a temperature of around 55–68°C, using a kitchen thermometer to check.
  2. Whisk to Froth: Once the milk is heated, use a whisk to froth it. Whisk vigorously by hand, creating a swirling motion to incorporate air into the milk until it’s frothy and has increased in volume.

Using a French Press:

  1. Heat the Milk: Warm it in the microwave or stovetop until it reaches the same temperature range (55–68°C).
  2. Froth with the French Press: Pour the heated milk into a French press. Pump the plunger vigorously for 15-30 seconds or until you’ve achieved a creamy, frothy texture.
Fascinated by the French press? Learn how to make a great coffee using it.

Using a Milk Frother:

  1. Heat and Froth: Some handheld electric milk frothers can heat and froth the milk. Follow the manufacturer’s instructions for the best results.

Using a Jar:

  1. Heat the Milk: Warm your milk in the microwave or stove.
  2. Shake to Froth: Pour the milk into a jar no more than halfway full. Secure the lid tightly and shake the jar vigorously for 30-60 seconds or until the milk is frothy and has roughly doubled in volume.

Tips for Each Method:

  • Temperature Control: Overheating the milk can ruin the flavor and texture. Always aim to keep the milk below 68°C.
  • Consistency: The goal is to create a smooth, velvety microfoam rather than large bubbles. Be gentle and consistent in your frothing technique.
  • Combining with Coffee: Once frothed, follow the same steps to combine with your espresso with traditionally steamed milk.

While these methods may not produce the exact same microfoam texture as an espresso machine’s steam wand, they can still yield a delightful and satisfying milk texture for your homemade flat white. Practice and experiment with different techniques and milk types (e.g., full-fat vs. skim milk) can help you get closer to your ideal cup.

Flat White At Home Recipe

Mastering the Art of the Flat White at Home

Mastering the art of the perfect flat white at home is more than just learning to brew a cup of coffee; it’s about embracing the joy and satisfaction that comes with honing a craft. Each step, from selecting the right beans to pouring the milk, offers an opportunity to delve deeper into the world of coffee and discover your personal preferences.

The beauty of making a flat white at home lies in the freedom to experiment. Every adjustment in the grind, every tweak in the milk temperature, and every swirl in the pour contributes to a unique coffee experience. With each cup, you’ll not only refine your barista skills but also develop a deeper appreciation for the delicate balance of flavors and textures that make a flat white so special.

So, encourage your inner coffee connoisseur to explore, adjust, and savor. Each homemade flat white is a testament to your passion and effort, a delightful reward meant to be enjoyed, one satisfying sip after another. Remember, the journey to creating the perfect cup is continuous and always evolving, much like the art of coffee.

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